What Is Glaucoma? Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment


Glaucoma is an eye condition that affects the optic nerve, which carries visual information from the eye to the brain. The damage is usually caused by an increase in the pressure inside the eye, known as intraocular pressure (IOP). Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, and it affects over 700,000 people in the UK alone. The condition often develops slowly and without any noticeable symptoms in the early stages, which is why it is often referred to as the “silent vision killer.” This article will provide a comprehensive overview of glaucoma, its causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options.

Types of Glaucoma


There are two main types of glaucoma:


  1. Open-angle glaucoma: It is the most common type, accounting for over 90% of all cases. In this type of glaucoma, the drainage angle of the eye remains open, but the trabecular meshwork (the tissue responsible for draining fluid out of the eye) becomes less efficient in doing so, leading to an increase in IOP.
  2. Angle-closure glaucoma: It occurs when the iris (the colored part of the eye) is pushed forward, blocking the drainage angle of the eye, and causing a sudden increase in IOP.

Risk Factors:


Several factors increase the risk of developing glaucoma, including:

  • Age: The risk of developing glaucoma increases as we age, and the condition is most common in people over 60 years old.
  • Family history: If someone in your family has glaucoma, your risk of developing the condition is higher.
  • Ethnicity: People of African or Afro-Caribbean descent are more likely to develop glaucoma than those of European descent.
  • Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and hypothyroidism, increase the risk of developing glaucoma.
  • Eye conditions: A history of eye injuries, surgeries, or other eye conditions, such as cataracts, also increase the risk of developing glaucoma.


In the early stages of glaucoma, there are usually no noticeable symptoms, which is why regular eye exams are essential in detecting the condition early. As the condition progresses, some of the symptoms that may be experienced include:

  • Loss of peripheral vision: The ability to see objects out of the corner of your eye may be reduced or lost.
  • Blurred vision: Objects may appear hazy or blurred.
  • Seeing halos around lights: A rainbow-colored ring may appear around lights, especially at night.
  • Redness in the eye: The eye may become red and painful.



The diagnosis of glaucoma usually involves a comprehensive eye exam, which includes several tests, such as:

  • Tonometry: This test measures the IOP using a device called a tonometer.
  • Ophthalmoscopy: This test allows the doctor to examine the optic nerve for any signs of damage.
  • Perimetry: This test measures the visual field, allowing the doctor to detect any loss of peripheral vision.
  • Gonioscopy: This test allows the doctor to examine the drainage angle of the eye using a special lens.



The treatment of glaucoma aims to reduce the IOP and prevent further damage to the optic nerve. The treatment options include:

  • Eye drops: These are the most common treatment for glaucoma, and they work by reducing the production of aqueous humor (the fluid inside the eye) or increasing its drainage. There are several types of eye drops available, and your doctor will determine the most suitable one for you.
  • Laser trabeculoplasty: This is a non-invasive procedure that uses a laser to
    increase the drainage of fluid from the eye. It is usually recommended when eye drops are not effective in reducing the IOP.
  • Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be required to reduce the IOP. There are several types of glaucoma surgeries, and the most common ones include trabeculectomy and glaucoma drainage devices.


There is no guaranteed way to prevent glaucoma, but some lifestyle changes can help reduce the risk of developing the condition. These include:

  • Regular eye exams: Regular eye exams are crucial in detecting glaucoma early before any irreversible damage occurs.
  • Exercise: Regular exercise can help reduce the IOP and improve blood flow to the optic nerve.
  • Healthy diet: A diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains may help reduce the risk of developing glaucoma.
  • Quitting smoking: Smoking increases the risk of developing several eye conditions, including glaucoma.

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